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Cisco路由中IOS误删除恢复方法

08-11   来源:   点击:加载中

简述:IOS被误删除后的恢复介绍 方法1:TFTP 近来发现许多网友因升级错误的IOS而丢失端口,现转贴以下文章,帮助大家在ROMMON下恢复IOS: ...

 IOS被误删除后的恢复介绍
    方法1:TFTP
    近来发现许多网友因升级错误的IOS而丢失端口,现转贴以下文章,帮助大家在ROMMON下恢复IOS:
    在ROMMON状态下,恢复2600和3600系列路由器的IOS
    不小心把IOS删掉或者升级IOS失败,重起后进入ROMMON(ROMMON状态是ROM MONITOR的缩写)状态,是比较常见的事,对一个新手而言,前者的可能要大些。两者都可能使路由器进入ROMMON状态,不能进行正常的路由转发功能和软件配置,在这种模式下,原IOS中的大部分命令都无法使用。那怎么办呢?根据Cisco网站的资料,我翻译整理了两种常用的方法:1.使用TFTP恢复IOS;2.使用Xmodem恢复IOS.不同的路由器的命令有些不一样,这里以2600和3600系列路由为例,但是思路应该是差不多的,下面分开讲一下这两种方法:
    在进行恢复之前,可以先看一下路由器的Flash里文件,用命令:dir flash:;注意命令中flash后面跟冒号(:),执行命令后会显示flash现存的IOS大小和文件名,如下面:
    1. rommon 1 》 dir flash:
    File size Checksum File name
    2179331 bytes (0x214103)
    0x7b95 c1600-nsy-mz_112-15a_p
    如果File name和Filesize的两项都是符合你的要求的,正确无误,那么你就不必要进行升级。这样也许是你的config-register的设置有问题,正常的一般config-register应该是0x2102的。注意0x2102中的最后一位值2, 最后一位值在2到F都是正常的。注意config-register的值控制着路由器的启动!如果最后一位数值不是在这个范围内,可以使用confreg 命令来改变它的值。关于config-register的16bit的每bit的含意,可以看一下cisco的技术资料,这里就不多说了。如果File name和File size的两项有一项是错的,那就进行下面的升级步骤:
    一、 使用TFTP恢复IOS
    使用交叉的网线连接你的路由器以太口和装有TFTP Server软件的PC机,在PC机上启动TFTPServer软件,并把新的IOS文件放在TFTP server所在目录的根目录下,如:你的TFTP Server软件在机器装的是Cisco TFTP Server目录,那么就把新的IOS文件放在Cisco TFTP Server目录下就可以了。用控制线将调试机器与路由器连接起来。
    接下来的事就是在路由器进行操作了,在路由器上首先要设置一下ROMMON状态的环境变量,注意所有的环境变量都是大小写敏感的,一定要注意了!往往出错就是因为这个原因。具体下面设置如下:
    打开机器的超级终端工具,连接上ROUTER,此时窗口中出现
    的命令行提示符为: ROMMON 1 》 (其中"1"代表命令行的行数)。在提示符后输入命令:
    ROMMON 1 》IP_ADDRESS= ROUTER的IP地址(要和TFTP软件所在的机器在同一网段内)
    ROMMON 2 》IP_SUBNET_MASK= ROUTER的子网掩码
    ROMMON 3 》DEFAUT_GATEWAY= 默认网关地址 (可以没有,也可以是TFTP服务器
    ROMMON 4 》TFTP_SERVER= TFTP 服务器IP地址
    ROMMON 5 》TFTP_FILE= IOS文件名(只给出文件名,不需要路径)
    ROMMON 6 》tftpdnld 回车
    注意:前面的几条命令必须使用大写,而最后的tftpdnld则要用小写。设置完后要用sync命令保存环境变量到NVRAM,用set命令进行察看设置。
    在tftpdnld命令执行后,只要根据提示选择,就可完成文件的传输。当文件传输完后,将自动回到命令行下,输入reset重启ROUTER,重启后就又回到了熟悉的IOS模式下 甚至连以前配置的信息都不会丢失。
    下面是具体的例子:
    Example
    rommon 16 》 IP_ADDRESS=172.16.0.1
    rommon 17 》 IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0
    rommon 18 》 DEFAULT_GATEWAY=172.16.0.2
    rommon 19 》 TFTP_SERVER=172.16.0.2
    rommon 20 》 TFTP_FILE=c2600-is-mz.113-2.0.3.Q
    rommon 21 》 tftpdnld
    IP_ADDRESS: 172.16.0.1
    IP_SUBNET_MASK: 255.255.255.0
    DEFAULT_GATEWAY: 172.16.0.2
    TFTP_SERVER: 172.16.0.2
    TFTP_FILE: c2600-is-mz.113-2.0.3.Q
    Invoke this command for disaster recoveryonly.
    WARNING: all existing data in all partitions on flash will be lost!
    Do you wish to continue? y/n: [n]: y
    Receiving c2600-is-mz.113-2.0.3.Q from172.16.0.2 !!!!!.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!.!!
    File reception completed.
    Copying file c2600-is-mz.113-2.0.3.Q toflash.
    Erasing flash at 0x607c0000
    program flash location 0x60440000
    rommon 22 》
    注意的几个问题
    ①在连接运行tftp server的PC 机至路由器时,必需使用路由器的第一个以太口,即Ethernt0(对2500系列等),Ethernet0/0(对2600系列等),其它系列略有差别,可根据使用手册进行确定。
    ②在使用连接电缆时,一定要用交叉线,因这种情况属DTE与DCE之间的连接。
    ③在运行tftp server的PC 机上,一定要有相应的路由器的IOS印象文件,可以通过多种渠道和多种方式获得该文件。
    ④tftp server的地址可以随意定义,但必须与路由器定义的地址在同一网段上。
方法2:XMODEM
    IOS丢失以后,所有的设备都会启动最小启动模式。
    rommon 1 》 confreg 回车
    Configuration Summary
    enabled are:
    load rom after netboot fails
    console baud: 9600
    boot: image specified by the boot system commands
    or default to: Cisco2-C2600
    do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)
    enable "diagnostic mode"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    enable "use net in IP bcast address"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    disable "load rom after netboot fails"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    enable "use all zero broadcast"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    enable "break/abort has effect"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    enable "ignore system config info"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    change console baud rate? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)
    enter rate: 0 = 9600, 1 = 4800, 2 = 1200, 3 = 2400
    4 = 19200, 5 = 38400, 6 = 57600, 7 = 115200 [0]: 7 (选择 7,用最大的115200速率的xmodem传输)
    change the boot characteristics? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    Configuration Summary
    enabled are:
    load rom after netboot fails
    console baud: 115200
    boot: image specified by the boot system commands
    or default to: Cisco2-C2600
    do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    You must reset or power cycle for newconfig to take effect
    rommon 2 》 reset 回车
    注意:在此时键入 reset键之前,开始定义串口速度(我的电脑---端口属性----串口速度调为115200),然后再修改超级终端里设置速率为115200,记住,一定这么做!否则出现乱码! 然后关闭这个超级终端,重新建立一个超级终端连接,(期间系统重新启动)启动后,出现
    rommon 1》提示符
    然后,输入
    rommon 1》 xmodem -r
    Do not start the sending program yet…
    Invoke this application only for disasterrecovery.
    Do you wish to continue? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)
    Ready to receive file …
    此时,在超级终端的菜单上的"传送"---"发送文件"----选择IOS镜像文件所在地以及选择使用"xmodem"协议,点击"发送"即可
    然后等待10-20分钟左右就把3-6M的IOS灌进去了! 需要主意的是,这是科学估算时间和实际的时间相差很远,实际如果10几M的话要3个多小时。希望大家预备好咖啡和甜品准备漫长的等待,本人深有体会,呵呵!
    (修改回计算机串口与超级终端、路由器confreg下的xmodem等9600的传输速率)
    (videre注:实际用的时候,我发现这个命令总是改不成功,后来发现在line con 0下面有了一个speed 115200,所以即使改register成功,启动以后router又执行speed 115200,还是不行,所以如果有这个问题,记得把这个语句no掉)
    Router》en 进入新IOS的特权模式
    Router#reload 重启系统
    Proceed with reload? [confirm] 回车
    00:01:04: %SYS-5-RELOAD: Reload requested
    System Bootstrap, Version 11.3(2)XA4, RELEASESOFTWARE (fc1)
    Copyright (c) 1999 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
    TAC:Home:SW:IOS:Specials for info
    PC = 0xfff0a530, Vector = 0x500, SP = 0x680127b0
    C2600 platform with 24576 Kbytes of mainmemory
    PC = 0xfff0a530, Vector = 0x500, SP = 0x80004684
    monitor: command "boot" aborted due to user interrupt
    rommon 1 》 confreg ( 输入"confreg"命令)
    Configuration Summary
    enabled are:
    load rom after netboot fails
    console baud: 115200
    boot: image specified by the boot system commands
    or default to: Cisco2-C2600
    do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)
    enable "diagnostic mode"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    enable "use net in IP bcast address"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    disable "load rom after netboot fails"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    enable "use all zero broadcast"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    enable "break/abort has effect"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    enable "ignore system config info"? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    change console baud rate? y/n [n]: y (选择 yes)
    enter rate: 0 = 9600, 1 = 4800, 2 = 1200, 3 = 2400
    4 = 19200, 5 = 38400, 6 = 57600, 7 = 115200 [7]: 0 (选择 0,改回用标准速率速率9600的xmodem传输)
    change the boot characteristics? y/n [n]: n (选择 no)
    Configuration Summary
    enabled are:
    load rom after netboot fails
    console baud: 9600
    boot: image specified by the boot system commands
    or default to: Cisco2-C2600
    do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: n
    You must reset or power cycle for newconfig to take effect
    rommon 2 》
    此时手工改回计算机串口与超级终端2者传输速率为9600
    然后敲入
    rommon 2 》reset
    ( 最好关电源)
    然后关闭这个超级终端,重新建立一个超级终端连接,一切就OK了
    通过Xmodem升级2610的IOS实例
    如果你不小心使用了命令erase flash 那么发生什么就可想而知了。因此,建议在你拿到路由器等网络设备时最好先将它的IOS等操作系统备份出来,以备万一!
本篇主要介绍通过Xmodem上传IOS的过程(以2610为例,不过这个方法用在其他设备上没什么太大区别)
    准备工作,只要有Cisco原配的线缆就可以(注:Xmodem与实际的modem没有任何联系 只是一个传输协议数据是通过终端的串口和路由器的Console口灌进去的)
    在没有IOS的情况下 系统只能进入Rommon状态,在这个状态下只能见到如下命令:
    rommon 8 》 ?
    alias set and display aliases command
    boot boot up an external process
    break set/show/clear the breakpoint
    confreg configuration register utility
    cont continue executing a downloaded image
    context display the context of a loadedimage
    cookie display contents of cookie PROM inhex
    dev list the device table
    dir list files in file system
    dis display instruction stream
    dnld serial download a program module
    frame print out a selected stack frame
    help monitor builtin command help
    history monitor command history
    meminfo main memory information
    repeat repeat a monitor command
    reset system reset
    set display the monitor variables
    stack produce a stack trace
    sync write monitor environment to NVRAM
    sysret print out info from last systemreturn
    tftpdnld tftp image download
    unalias unset an alias
    unset unset a monitor variable
    xmodem x/ymodem image download
    在这个模式下,输入Xmodem
    rommon 9 》 xmodem
    会提示如下警告:
    WARNING: All existing data in bootflash will be lost!
    Invoke this application only for disasterrecovery.
    Do you wish to continue? y/n [n]: y
    Ready to receive file ? …
    然后在超级终端的传送栏目=》 选择发送选项 =》 再选择Xmodem 并指明IOS所在的路径即开始上传IOS,等待时间很长,视IOS的大小和传输速度。对于初次做IOS上传,建议不要去修改什么传输速率。传完以后 对整个系统初始化 界面如下:
    Erasing flash at 0x603c0000
    program flash location 0x602f0000
    Download Complete!
    program load complete, entry point: 0x80008000, size:0x2f0074
    Self decompressing the image :
    Restricted Rights Legend
    Use, duplication, or disclosure by theGovernment is
    subject to restrictions as set forth insubparagraph
    (c) of theCommercial Computer Software - Restricted
    Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 andsubparagraph
    (c) (1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Dataand Computer
    Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.
    Cisco Systems, Inc.
    170 West Tasman Drive
    San Jose, California 95134-1706
    Cisco Internetwork Operating SystemSoftware
    IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 11.3(6)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
    Copyright (c) 1986-1998 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
    Compiled Tue 06-Oct-98 18:42 by ccai
    Image text-base: 0x80008084,data-base: 0x80554578
    alias set and display aliases command
    boot boot up an external process
    break set/show/clear the breakpoint
    confreg configuration register utility
    cont continue executing a downloaded image
    context display the context of a loadedimage
    cookie display contents of cookie PROM inhex
    dev list the device table
    dir list files in file system
    dis display instruction stream
    dnld serial download a program module
    frame print out a selected stack frame
    help monitor builtin command help
    history monitor command history
    meminfo main memory information
    repeat repeat a monitor command
    reset system reset
    set display the monitor variables
    stack produce a stack trace
    sync write monitor environment to NVRAM
    sysret print out info from last systemreturn
    tftpdnld tftp image download
    unalias unset an alias
    unset unset a monitor variable
    xmodem x/ymodem image download
    在这个模式下,输入Xmodem
    rommon 9 》 xmodem
    会提示如下警告:
    WARNING: All existing data in bootflash will be lost!
    Invoke this application only for disasterrecovery.
    Do you wish to continue? y/n [n]: y
    Ready to receive file ? …
    然后在超级终端的传送栏目=》 选择发送选项 =》 再选择Xmodem 并指明IOS所在的路径即开始上传IOS,等待时间很长,视IOS的大小和传输速度。对于初次做IOS上传,建议不要去修改什么传输速率。传完以后 对整个系统初始化 界面如下:
    Erasing flash at 0x603c0000
    program flash location 0x602f0000
    Download Complete!
    program load complete, entry point: 0x80008000, size:0x2f0074
    Self decompressing the image :
    Restricted Rights Legend
    Use, duplication, or disclosure by theGovernment is
    subject to restrictions as set forth insubparagraph
    (c) of theCommercial Computer Software - Restricted
    Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 andsubparagraph
    (c) (1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Dataand Computer
    Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.
    Cisco Systems, Inc.
    170 West Tasman Drive
    San Jose, California 95134-1706
    Cisco Internetwork Operating SystemSoftware
    IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 11.3(6)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
    Copyright (c) 1986-1998 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
    Compiled Tue 06-Oct-98 18:42 by ccai
    Image text-base: 0x80008084,data-base: 0x80554578
    alias set and display aliases command
    boot boot up an external process
    break set/show/clear the breakpoint
    confreg configuration register utility
    cont continue executing a downloaded image
    context display the context of a loadedimage
    cookie display contents of cookie PROM inhex
    dev list the device table
    dir list files in file system
    dis display instruction stream
    dnld serial download a program module
    frame print out a selected stack frame
    help monitor builtin command help
    history monitor command history
    meminfo main memory information
    repeat repeat a monitor command
    reset system reset
    set display the monitor variables
    stack produce a stack trace
    sync write monitor environment to NVRAM
    sysret print out info from last systemreturn
    tftpdnld tftp image download
    unalias unset an alias
    unset unset a monitor variable
    xmodem x/ymodem image download
    在这个模式下,输入Xmodem
    rommon 9 》 xmodem
    会提示如下警告:
    WARNING: All existing data in bootflash will be lost!
    Invoke this application only for disasterrecovery.
    Do you wish to continue? y/n [n]: y
    Ready to receive file ? …
    然后在超级终端的传送栏目=》 选择发送选项 =》 再选择Xmodem 并指明IOS所在的路径即开始上传IOS,等待时间很长,视IOS的大小和传输速度。对于初次做IOS上传,建议不要去修改什么传输速率。传完以后 对整个系统初始化 界面如下:
    Erasing flash at 0x603c0000
    program flash location 0x602f0000
    Download Complete!
    program load complete, entry point: 0x80008000, size:0x2f0074
    Self decompressing the image :
    Restricted Rights Legend
    Use, duplication, or disclosure by theGovernment is
    subject to restrictions as set forth insubparagraph
    (c) of theCommercial Computer Software - Restricted
    Rights clause at FAR sec. 52.227-19 andsubparagraph
    (c) (1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Dataand Computer
    Software clause at DFARS sec. 252.227-7013.
    Cisco Systems, Inc.
    170 West Tasman Drive
    San Jose, California 95134-1706
    Cisco Internetwork Operating SystemSoftware
    IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 11.3(6)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
    Copyright (c) 1986-1998 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
    Compiled Tue 06-Oct-98 18:42 by ccai
    Image text-base: 0x80008084,data-base: 0x80554578
    Cisco 2610 (MPC860) processor (revision 0x202) with 12288K/4096K bytes ofmemory
    .
    Processor board ID JAB0233005Z (3677578902)
    M860 processor: part number 0, mask 32
    Bridging software.
    X.25 software, Version 3.0.0.
    1 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
    1 Serial network interface(s)
    32K bytes of non-volatile configurationmemory.
    4096K bytes of processor board System flash(Read/Write)
    Press RETURN to get started!
    00:00:06: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Ethernet0/0, changed state to up
    00:00:06: %LINK-3-UPDOWN: Interface Serial0/0, changed state to up
    00:00:06: %SYS-5-CONFIG_I: Configured from memory byconsole
    00:00:06: %SYS-5-RESTART: System restarted --
    Cisco Internetwork Operating SystemSoftware
    IOS (tm) C2600 Software (C2600-I-M), Version 11.3(6)T, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
    Copyright (c) 1986-1998 by Cisco Systems, Inc.
    Compiled Tue 06-Oct-98 18:42 by ccai
    00:00:07: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol on
    WL_bank_2610_2》Interface Ethernet0/0, changed state to up
    00:00:07: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol onInterface Serial0/0, changed sta
    te to up
    00:00:07: %LINEPROTO-5-UPDOWN: Line protocol onInterface Loopback0, changed sta


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